Planspiel+ - Literatur
A Scientific Foundation of Simulation Games for the Analysis and Design of Complex Systems.
In: Simulation & Gaming, H. Vol. 49 (3), S. 279-314.
Background: The use of simulation games for complex systems analysis and design
has been acknowledged about 50 years ago. However, articles do not combine
all salient factors for successful simulation games, and often stem from a
clear view of one particular field of science only. With combining multiple
disciplines, connect analysis and design as well as research and practice, we
provide deep insights in design and use of simulation games.
Aim: This article analyzes the design and evaluation process of a variety of gamebased
projects and activities, using existing scientific concepts and approaches,
in order to establish games as a valid research tool. Our focus lies on the
approach towards the use of games as design instrument; using them as an
intervention in a larger, complex context, in order to design this context. With
our contribution, we aim at providing insights and recommendations on the
design and use of games as valid research tools, the limitations of this use,
possible pitfalls, but also best practices.
Method: We carried out a literature review of related work to identify the most
important scientific concepts related to our approach of game design. Further
use of combined quantitative and qualitative case study analyses highlights the
design process and results of our own game studies.
Results: The analyses yielded a consolidated conceptualization of simulation games
as research instruments in complex systems analysis and design. The results alsoinclude methods for the evaluation of simulation games, additional evaluation
methods, and limitations to use simulation games as research instruments.
Conclusions: We propose guidelines for using simulation games as research
instruments that may be of value to practitioners and scientists alike.
Recommendation: We recommend practitioners and scientists to apply the guidelines
presented here in their efforts to analyze and design complex systems.
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