Planspiel+ - Literatur
Gamification Science, its HIstory and Future: Definitions and a Research Agenda.
In: Simulation & Gaming, H. Vol 49 (3), S. 315-337.
Background: Definitions of gamification tend to vary by person, both in industry
and within academia. One particularly popular lay interpretation, introduced and
popularized by Ian Bogost, and reiterated by Jan Klabbers, is that gamification
is “bullshit” and “exploitationware.” They describe gamification as a marketing
term or business practice invented to sell products rather than to represent a
real and unique phenomenon relevant to a nascent game science. However,
this view is an oversimplification, one which ignores a growing body of theory
development and empirical research on gamification within a post-positivist
epistemology. In fact, because gamification is so much more outcome-focused
than general game design, current gamification research in many ways has a
stronger footing in modern social science than much games research does.
Aim: In this article, to address common misunderstandings like these, we describe
the philosophical underpinnings of modern gamification research,
define the relationship between games and gamification, define and situate
gamification science as a subdiscipline of game science, and explicate a sixelement
framework of major concerns within gamification science: predictor
constructs, criterion constructs, mediator constructs, moderator
constructs, design processes, and research methods. This framework is
also presented diagrammatically as a causal path model.
Conclusion. Gamification science refers to the development of theories of
gamification design and their empirical evaluation within a post-positivist
epistemology. The goal of gamification scientist-practitioners should be
to understand how to best meet organizational goals through the design of
gamification interventions, drawing upon insights derived from both gamification
science and games research more broadly.
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